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Table 3 Risk perception using 6 construct of health beliefs among health sciences university students according to their level of adherence to COVID-19 precautionary behavior (n = 286)

From: Assessment of perceived risk and precautionary behavior toward COVID-19 pandemic using the health belief model, Saudi Arabia

Characteristics Study groups Total
No. (%)
𝛘2 test P value 0R (95%CI)
Level of adherence to precautionary behavioral
Satisfactory
No. (%)
Unsatisfactory
No. (%)
Perceived susceptibility
 High 104 (59.8) 70 (40.2) 174 (60.8) 1.39 .237 1
 Low 59 (52.7) 53 (47.3) 112 (39.2) 1.34 (0.88–2.15
Perceived severity
 High 87 (58.4) 62 (41.6) 149 (52.1) 0.25 .62 1
 Low 76 (55.5) 61 (44.5) 137 (47.9) 1.13 (0.71–1.80)
Perceived benefits
 High 129 (63.2) 75 (36.8) 204 (71.3) 11.3 <.001* 1
 Low 34 (41.5) 48 (58.5) 82 (28.7)    2.43 (1.44–4.1)
Perceived barriers
 High 66 (44.0) 84 (56.0) 150 (52.4) 21.7 <.001* 1
 Low 97 (71.3) 39 (28.7) 136 (47.6) 0.31 (0.19–0.52)
Perceived self-efficacy
 High 123 (65.4) 65 (34.6) 188 (65.7) 15.9 <.001* 1
 Low 40 (40.8) 58 (59.2) 98 (34.3) 2.7 (1.7–4.5)
Cues to action
 High 131 (67.5) 63 (32.5) 194 (67.8) 27.3 <.001* 1
 Low 32 (34.8) 60 (65.2) 92 (32.2) 3.89 (2.31–6.58)
Risk perception
 Positive 119 (75.3) 39 (24.7) 158 (55.2) 48.4 <.001* 1
 Negative 44 (34.4) 84 (65.6) 128 (44.8) 5.83 (3.49–9.74)
COVID-19-related knowledge
 Good 105 (59.0) 73 (41.0) 178 (62.2) 0.77 .38 1
 Poor 58 (53.7) 50 (46.3) 108 (37.8) 1.24 (0.77–2.1)
  1. *P ≤ 0.05 is significance
  2. OR Odds Ratio, CI Confidence Interval