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Table 2 Characteristics of the included studies

From: The association between black stain and lower risk of dental caries in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis

  Author/date Study design Count-ry Setting Age Sample size Diagnosis method and criteria Prevalence of BS Prevalence of caries (BS) Prevalence of caries (no BS)
1 {Akyuz, 2015} [22] Cross-sectional Turkey One university clinic 5 -13 325 Clinical exam
Caries (dft)
BS (yes/no)
18.5% dft = 3.67 (3.25)a
Presence of caries= 86.67%
dft = 4.29 (3.48)a
Presence of caries= 92.08%
2 {Garan, 2012} [23] Case- control Turkey One university clinic 7-12 38 Clinical exam
Caries (dft)
BS (yes/no)
N/A dft= 1.21 (2.04)a dft= 3.60 (3.60)a
3 {Boka, 2013} [24] Cross-sectional Greece 20 kinder-gartens 3- 5.5 804 Clinical exam
Caries (dmfs)
BS (yes/no)
2.4% dmfs = 0.38 (0.9)a dmfs = 1.19 (3.9)a
4 {Chen, 2014} [15] Cross-sectional China 12 kinder-gartens 4.55 1,397 Clinical exam
Caries (dmft and dmfs)
BS (yes/no)
9.9 % dmft= 1.91 (3.08)a
dmfs= 4.22 (7.84)a
Presence of caries= 46.4 %
dmft= 2.97 (3.91)a
dmfs= 6.69 (10.15)a
Presence of caries= 59.1 %
5 {Elelmi, 2020} [25] Cross-sectional Tunisia 21 kindergartens 3-5 393 Clinical exam
Caries (dmft) and ECC (yes/no)
BS (yes/no)
6.1% dmft= 0.83
(SD not reported)
ECC=33.3%
dmft= 1.46
(SD not reported)
ECC=50.9%
6 {França-Pinto, 2012} [26] Cross-sectional Brazil Homes 5 1,120 Clinical exam
Caries (dmfs)
BS (yes/no)
3.5% dmfs= 3.3 (6.7)a
Presence of caries= 41.03%
dmfs= 4.1 (7.4)a
Presence of caries= 48.66%
7 {Garcia Martin, 2013} [12] Cross-sectional Spain One health center 6 3,272 Clinical exam
Caries (dmft)
BS (yes/no)
3.1% dmft= 0.35 (1.123)a dmft= 0.65 (1.852)a
8 {Heinrich-Weltzien, 2014} [10] Case- control Germany A kinder-garten and an elementary school 7.9 ± 1.3 93 Clinical exam
Caries (dmft)
BS (yes/no)
N/A (1.5% in an earlier study in 2011 from which the participants were chosen) dmft=1.6 (2.1)a
Presence of caries= 48.9%
dmft= 3.0 (3.2)a
Presence of caries= 67.4%
9 {Hwang, 2020} [27] Case- control Korea - 4-11 10 Clinical exam
Caries (dmft)
BS (Bs scale 0,1,2)
N/A dmft= 3.8
(SD not reported)
dmft= 1.75
(SD not reported)
10 {Koch, 2001} [28] Cross-sectional Italy Elementary schools 6-12 1086 Clinical exam
Caries (dmft)
BS (yes/no)
6.17% dmft= 1.87 (2.47)a dmft= 2.39 (2.62)a
11 {Muthu, 2019} [29] Cross-sectional India 150 Anganwadi centers 0-3 1,486 Clinical exam
ECC (yes/no)
BS (yes/no)
6.2% ECC=43.48% ECC=40.6%
12 {Mutsaddi, 2018} [30] Case- control India Schools 7 -11 60 Clinical exam
Caries (dft and dfs)
BS (yes/no)
N/A dft= 0.80 (1.32)a
dfs= 1.30 (2.45)a
dft= 4.33 (3.57)a
dfs= 7.73 (7.19)a
13 {Sharaf, 2017} [31] Case- control Egypt One university clinic 3-12 80 Clinical exam
Caries (dmft/deft)
BS (yes/no)
N/A dmft/deft= 4 (3 - 6)b dmft/deft= 2 (0 - 4)b
14 {Tripodi, 2016} [32] Case-control Italy One university clinic 9.82
±4.43
189 Clinical exam
Caries (dmft)
BS (yes/no)
(1.8% of the whole study population) dmft= 0.12 (3.15)a
Presence of caries= 26,08%
dmft= 0.1 (3.07)a
Presence of caries= 44,12%
  1. *aMean (SD), bMedian (IQR)