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Table 7 EC50 and NOEC (mg/L) of nanoformulations compared with technical and commercial formulated pyrethroids to freshwater microalga R. subcapitata. The 95% confidence limits of the EC50 values are indicated in parentheses

From: Enhanced mosquitocidal efficacy of pyrethroid insecticides by nanometric emulsion preparation towards Culex pipiens larvae with biochemical and molecular docking studies

Insecticide Formulation Toxicity endpoint
96 h EC50 (mg/L) NOEC (mg/L) GHS hazard statement
Alpha-cypermethrin T 69.33 (38.15–145.54) 6.932 H402
  EC 16.98 (10.99–29.01) 1.698 H402
  NE 101.11 (38.08–409.14 1.011 S
Lambda-cyhalothrin T 33.89 (15.93–94.27) 3.389 H402
  EC 5.03 (2.96–9.62) 0.503 H401
  NE 11.29 (1.83–121.71) 1.129 H402
Deltamethrin T > 100 > 10 S
  EC 0.76 (0.56–1.05) 0.076 H400
  NE 13.14 (6.49–30.74) 1.314 H402
Permethrin T 14.94 (9.72–23.72) 1.494 H402
  EC 4.92 (3.31–7.75) 0.492 H401
  NE 20.55 (12.66–36.25) 2.055 H402
  1. T technical, EC emulsifiable concentrate, NE nanoemulsion, NOEC no observed effect concentration on algal growth rate, H hazard statement. H400 very toxic to aquatic life (hazardous to the aquatic environment, acute hazard, category 1; ≤ 1mg/L); H401 toxic to aquatic life (hazardous to the aquatic environment, acute hazard, category 2; > 1–≤ 10 mg/L); H402 harmful to aquatic life (hazardous to the aquatic environment, acute hazard, category 2; > 10–≤ 100 mg/L). S: Safe use (no hazard statement is suggested) since acute toxicity > 100 mg/L