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Table 2 Larvicidal activity of the technical, EC, and nanoemulsion of alpha-cypermethrin, deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, and permethrin against C. pipiens larvae

From: Enhanced mosquitocidal efficacy of pyrethroid insecticides by nanometric emulsion preparation towards Culex pipiens larvae with biochemical and molecular docking studies

Insecticide Time of exposure (h) Type of formulation LC50a
(μg/L)
95% confidence limits (μg/L) Slopeb ± SE Interceptc ± SE 2)d
Lower Upper
Alpha-cypermethrin 24 T 43 26 46 2.47 ± 0.15 3.66 ± 0.26 20.69
EC 40 35 64 3.22 ± 0.18 4.31 ± 0.27 35.35
NE 20 15 26 2.30 ± 0.14 3.94 ± 0.26 22.45
48 T 40 26 46 2.47 ± 0.15 3.66 ± 0.26 20.69
EC 38 32 63 3.20 ± 0.18 4.21 ± 0.27 35.32
NE 18 15 24 2.51 ± 0.15 4.37 ± 0.28 20.59
Deltamethrin 24 T 28 23 36 2.23 ± 0.13 3.45 ± 0.22 21.02
EC 26 20 31 1.31 ± 0.08 1.52 ± 0.08 73.20
NE 16 12 21 2.52 ± 0.16 4.50 ± 0.27 43.97
48 T 25 19 34 2.12 ± 0.13 3.39 ± 0.21 29.62
EC 24 20 28 1.30 ± 0.08 1.57 ± 0.09 57.09
NE 13 9 16 2.51 ± 0.17 4.76 ± 0.30 35.17
Lambda-cyhalothrin 24 T 27 17 45 1.47 ± 0.09 2.31 ± 0.17 30.16
EC 23 12 41 1.25 ± 0.08 2.06 ± 0.14 37.22
NE 15 11 20 2.05 ± 0.12 3.75 ± 0.23 18.42
48 T 18 12 27 1.30 ± 0.09 2.27 ± 0.16 18.84
EC 13 8 18 1.43 ± 0.07 2.72 ± 0.17 17.77
NE 10 7 14 1.42 ± 0.09 2.85 ± 0.18 19.7
Permethrin 24 T 322 221 506 1.36 ± 0.089 0.67 ± 0.081 22.655
EC 280 206 392 1.64 ± 0.103 0.91 ± 0.09 20.66
NE 233 201 270 1.68 ± 0.10 1.06 ± 0.09 07.20
48 T 225 134 423 1.26 ± 0.08 0.81 ± 0.08 40.21
EC 196 134 288 1.97 ± 0.12 1.39 ± 0.10 37.04
NE 127 76 215 1.43 ± 0.08 1.29 ± 0.09 44.54
  1. T technical, EC emulsifiable concentrate, NE nanoemulsion. aThe Median lethal concentration. The LC50 value of each compound between the other compound’s confidence limits is not significantly different. However, if the fit confidence intervals (95%) are non-overlapping, there is a significant difference between the compounds. bSlope of the concentration mortality regression line ± error (SE). cIntercept of the regression line ± SE. dChi-squared value