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Table 1 The observed visual stability, droplet size, polydispersity index (PDI), zeta potential, dynamic (absolute) viscosity, and pH of prepared pyrethroid nanoemulsions

From: Enhanced mosquitocidal efficacy of pyrethroid insecticides by nanometric emulsion preparation towards Culex pipiens larvae with biochemical and molecular docking studies

Insecticide Visual appearance Droplet size (nm) ± SE Polydispersity index (PDI) ± SE Zeta potential (mV) Viscosity (mPa.s) ± SE pH Stability after
Centrifugation at 5000 rpm Heating-cooling cycle
Alpha-cypermethrin Clear 90.26b ± 3.78 0.337c ± 0.01 − 0.603 60.15b ± 0.12 8.51 ×
Deltamethrin Clear 172.00a ± 34.07 0.827a ± 0.10 − 0.669 74.67a ± 7.86 7.84 ×
Lambda-cyhalothrin Clear 168.00a ± 4.08 0.448b ± 0.05 − 0.539 53.76c ± 0.20 8.20 ×
Permethrin Clear 72.00c ± 8.30 0.295d ± 0.02 − 15.40 50.68c ± 1.200 8.17 ×
  1. Different letters in the same column indicate significant differences according to the Student-Newman-Keuls (SNK) test (P ≤ 0.05). (√) refer to the stable state, (×) refer to the non-stable state. Preparation condition: 0.5 % a.i, 44% solvent (DMSO), 15% surfactant (tween 80) and 40.5% water with sonication pulses 9 cycle/s at 75% power for 15 min