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Table 4 Stepwise logistic regression analysis of the independent predictors of lower limb varicose veins (LLVV) among all participants (n = 300)

From: Epidemiological, life style, and occupational factors associated with lower limb varicose veins: a case control study

Independent predictors Coefficient Adjusted OR 95% CI P value
Age 0.05 1.05 (1.02, 1.09) < 0.01**
Smoking 0.93 2.53 (1.15, 5.58) 0.02*
Infrequent/no consumption of fiber-rich food 1.45 4.27 (1.95, 9.37) < 0.001***
Drinking < 5 cups of water/day 1.94 6.95 (2.78, 17.33) < 0.001***
Irregular defecation habit 1.20 3.34 (1.68, 6.60) < 0.01**
Frequent lifting of heavy objects/day 4.09 59.79 (6.01, 584.36) < 0.001***
Standing > 4 h/day 1.29 3.65 (1.63, 8.17) < 0.01**
Sleeping < 8 h/day 1.05 2.86 (1.14, 7.16) 0.02*
  1. Abbreviations: OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval
  2. Model X2 = 200.91 (p < 0.001); Nagelkerke’s R2 = 0.65; Cox and Snell R2 = 0.48; Hosmer and Lemeshow X2 = 5.57 (p=0.69)
  3. OR adjusted for gender, employment status, family history of varices, and potential life style risk factors significant in univariate analysis (posture during defecation, taking laxatives, and body mass index)
  4. Occupational risk factors and significant factors that include cells having a count less than 5 were excluded from the regression model
  5. *p<0.05
  6. **p<0.01
  7. ***p<0.001