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Table 2 Epidemiological and life style factors associated with lower limbs varicose veins (LLVV)

From: Epidemiological, life style, and occupational factors associated with lower limb varicose veins: a case control study

Epidemiological and life style factors Cases
(n = 150)
Controls
(n = 150)
OR (95% CI) P value
No. % No. %
Level of activity       
 Exercising       
  Yes (regular/irregular)&^ 27 18.0 29 19.3 1.09 (0.61, 1.95) 0.76
  No 123 82.0 121 80.7
 Lifting heavy objects (frequency/day)       
  Frequent/very frequent$ 35 23.3 1 0.7 45.34 (6.12, 345.94) >0.001***
  Occasional/rare/never^ 115 76.7 149 99.3
 Standing hours/day       
  > 4 h/day 89 59.3 26 17.3 6.95 (4.08, 11.86) >0.001***
  ≤ 4 h/day^ 61 40.7 124 82.7
 Sleeping hours/day       
  < 8 h/day 62 41.3 17 11.3 5.51 (3.02, 10.04) >0.001***
  ≥ 8 h/day^ 88 58.7 133 88.7
 Sitting hours/day       
  < 8 hours/day 77 51.3 72 48.0 1.14 (0.72, 1.79) 0.64
  ≥ 8 hours/day^ 73 48.7 78 52.0
Anthropometric measurements       
 Body mass index (BMI)       
  Underweight and normal (BMI < 25)^ 8 5.3 19 12.7 2.57 (1.09, 6.08) 0.02*
  Overweight and obese (BMI ≥ 25) 142 94.7 131 87.3
  Min-max 21.60-48.47 21.48-39.45   
  Mean ± SD 31.19 ± 4.71 27.68 ± 2.57 1.32 (1.22, 1.44) >0.001***
Smoking       
 Smoking status       
  Smoker 45 30.0 27 18.0 1.95 (1.13, 3.36) 0.01*
  Ex-smoker/non-smoker^ 105 70.0 123 82.0
 Smoking intensity#       
  Light smoker^ 34 63.0 32 91.4 6.27 (1.70, 23.16) >0.01**
  Moderate/heavy smoker 20 37.0 3 8.6
 Smoking index (SI)     
  Min-max 20-500 25-300   
  Mean ± SD 188.5 ± 103.6 141.8 ± 73.4 1.006 (1.001, 1.01) 0.02*
Dietary habits and intestinal motility       
 Consumption of diet rich in fibers       
  Occasional/rare/never 103 68.7 30 20.0 8.76 (5.16, 14.86) >0.001***
  Frequent/very frequent^ 47 31.3 120 80.0   
 Drinking water (cups/day)       
  ≥ 5 cups/day 136 90.7 60 40.0 14.57 (7.68, 27.62) >0.001***
  ≥ 5 cups/day^ 14 9.3 90 60.0
 Regularity of defecation       
  Irregular 97 64.7 40 26.7 5.03 (3.07, 8.24) >0.001***
  Regular^ 53 35.3 110 73.3   
 Posture while defecation       
  Squatting 25 16.7 2 1.3 14.80 (3.43, 63.71) >0.001***
  Sitting^ 125 83.3 14 98.7   
 Taking laxatives       
  Yes 31 20.7 7 4.7 5.32 (2.26, 12.51) >0.001***
  No^ 119 79.3 143 95.3   
Medical and family history       
 Family history of varices       
  Positive family history 58 38.7 40 26.7 1.73 (1.06, 2.82) 0.02*
  Negative family history/not known^ 92 61.3 110 73.3   
 Immobilization for 1-3 months       
  Yes 13 8.7 0 0.0   
  No^ 137 91.3 150 100.0   
 Previous leg trauma       
  Yes 9 6.0 1 0.7 9.51 (1.19, 76.03) 0.01*
  No^ 141 94.0 149 99.3   
Reproductive factors (n = 81) (n = 75)     
 Graviditya       
  ≥ 4 36 44.4 12 16.0 4.20 (1.97, 8.95) >0.001***
  < 4^ 45 55.6 63 84.0   
 Paritya       
  ≥ 4 32 39.5 6 8.0 7.51 (2.91, 19.33) >0.001***
  < 4^ 49 60.5 69 92.0   
 Use of OCsa       
  Yes (regular/irregular) 36 44.4 10 13.2 5.20 (2.34-11.53) >0.001***
  No^ 45 55.6 65 86.8   
 Duration of OCs use (years)b       
  < 5 years^ 5 13.9 7 70.0 14.46 (2.77, 75.3) 0.001**
  ≥ 5 years 31 86.1 3 30.0
  Min-max 1-12 1-10   
  Mean ± SD 6.91 ± 3.21 3.30 ± 2.83 1.47 (1.10, 1.97) >0.01**
  1. Abbreviations: SI smoking index, SD standard deviation, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, OCs oral contraceptive pills
  2. ^Reference category
  3. #Among smokers (cases n = 54, controls n = 35), light smokers (SI < 200), moderate/heavy smokers (SI ≥ 200)
  4. $Where frequent is ≥ 5 times per week
  5. &Regular exercise defined as 150 min of moderate intensity aerobic physical activity per week
  6. aNumber of women excluding single women (cases n = 81, controls n = 75)
  7. bNumber of women using OCs (cases n = 36, controls n = 10)
  8. *p≤0.05
  9. **p>0.01
  10. ***p>0.001