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Table 2 Socio-demographic characteristics of children exposed to different types of violent discipline during the COVID-19 pandemic in Sohag governorate, Egypt, 2020

From: Impact of COVID-19 pandemic and related isolation measures on violence against children in Egypt

Parameters Index children
N = 1118. (%)
Violent discipline
N = 1012 (%)
OR p Severe physical discipline
N = 483 (%)
OR p Psychological discipline
N = 992 (%)
OR p
Child gender   OR = 1.35
p = 0.162
   OR = 0.527
p < 0.001
   OR = 1.79
p = 0.005
  
 Male 678 (60.6) 607 (59.9) 0.739 0.16 334 (69.1) 1.90 0.00 587 (59.1) 0.55 0.005
 Female ® 440 (39.4) 405 (40.1)    149 (31.9)    405 (40.9)   
Child age (years)   OR = 1.28
p < 0.001
   OR = 0.80
p < 0.001
   OR = 1.23
p = 0.007
  
 <2 149 (13.3) 110 (10.8) 0.452 0.013 65 (13.4) 1.799 0.022 105 (10.5) 0.38 0.002
 2–<5 286 (25.6) 271 (26.7) 2.89 0.004 148 (30.6) 2.493 0.000 271 (27.3) 2.89 0.004
 5–<8 236 (21.1) 223 (22) 2.75 0.009 127 (26.2) 2.708 0.000 218 (21.9) 1.94 0.064
 8–<12 324 (29) 302 (29.8) 2.20 0.021 106 (21.9) 1.130 0.594 292 (29.4) 1.46 0.235
 ≥ 12 123 (11) 106 (10.4)    37 (7.6)    106 (86.2)   
Child birth order   OR = 0.911
p = 0.561
   OR = 0.66
p = 0.000
   OR = 1.05
p = 0.758
  
 1 ® 891 (79.7) 812 (80.2)    403 (83.4)    792 (79.8)   
 2–3 158 (14.1) 136 (13.4) 0.601 0.04 63 (13) 0.810 0.232 136 (13.7) 0.77 0.309
 4–5 50 (4.5) 45 (4.4) 0.876 0.78 14 (2.8) 0.475 0.021 45 (4.5) 1.12 0.807
 >5 14 (1.3) 14 (1.3) 157 × 106 0.99 3 (0.6) 0.000 0.998 14 (1.4) 201 × 106 0.999
Child education level   OR = 1.66
p < 0.001
   OR = 0.52
p = 0.001
   OR = 1.60
p < 0.001
  
 No ® 218 (19.5) 170 (16.7)    86 (17.8)    165 (16.6)   
 Kindergarten 345 (30.9) 321 (31.7) 3.8 0.00 198 (11.8) 2.06 0.00 316 (31.8) 3.50 0.000
 Primary school 435 (38.9) 418 (41.3) 6.9 0.00 161 (33.3) 0.90 0.55 408 (41.1) 4.85 0.000
 Prep. school 99 (8.9) 82 (8.1) 1.3 0.00 34 (7) 0.80 0.39 82 (8.2) 1.54 0.157
 High school 21 (1.9) 21 (2.1) 456× 106 0.99 4 (0.8) 0.36 0.08 21 (2.1) 518 × 106 0.998
Total 1118 1,012 (90.5%)    483 (43.2%)    992 (88.7%)   
  1. ®Reference category