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Table 1 Socio-demographic characteristics of survey respondents and their association with psychological impact of the pandemic on the parents and violent discipline against their children during the COVID-19 pandemic in Sohag governorate, Egypt, 2020

From: Impact of COVID-19 pandemic and related isolation measures on violence against children in Egypt

Parameters Parents respondents
N = 1118 (%)
Parents’ IES-R score ≥ 33
N = 646 (%)
OR p Parents’ violent discipline#
N = 1012. (%)
OR p
Parents’ gender
 Male ® 133 (11.9) 60 (45.1)    108 (81.2)   
 Female 985 (88.1) 586 (59.5) 0.56 0.002 904 (91.8) 0.387 0.00
Parents’ age (years)   OR = 0.791
p = 0.009
   OR = 0.917
p = 0.557
  
 20 to <30 228 (20.4) 144 (63.5) 2.952 0.001 193 (84.6) 1.991 0.064
 30 to <40 752 (67.2) 429 (57.0) 2.287 0.007 703 (93.5) 5.181 0.000
 40 to <50 89 (8.0) 55 (61.8) 2.786 0.005 80 (89.9) 3.210 0.015
 ≥50 ® 49 (4.4) 18 (36.7)    36 (73.5)   
Parents’ marital status   OR = 1.23
p = 0.322
   OR = 73 × 106
p = 0.997
  
 Married 1,065 (95.3) 614 (57.7) 0.38 0.09 959 (90.0) 0.00 0.99
 Divorced 35 (3.1) 18 (51.4) 0.30 0.07 35 (100) 1.00 1.00
 Widow/er ® 18 (1.6) 14 (77.8)    18 (100)   
Parents’ residence   OR = 0.804
p = 0.151
   OR = 0.467
p = 0.001
  
 Urban 901 (80.6) 530 (58.8) 1.244 0.151 829 (92.0) 2.139 0.001
 Rural 217 (19.4) 116 (53.5)    183 (84.3)   
Parents’ employment   OR = 1.17
p = 0.087
   OR = 0.995
p = 0.973
  
 No ® 285 (25.5) 157 (55.1)    256 (89.8)   
 Government agency 741 (66.3) 425 (57.4) 1.09 0.51 674 (91.0) 1.14 0.57
 Private sector 49 (4.4) 39 (79.6) 3.18 0.00 44 (89.8) 0.99 0.99
 Freelancer 43 (3.8) 25 (58.1) 1.13 0.71 38 (88.4) 0.86 0.77
Parents’ highest education   OR = 0.828
p = 0.080
   OR = 0.95
p = 0.779
  
 Elementary 8 (0.7) 8 (100.0) 128 × 106 0.999 8 (100%) 180 × 106 0.999
 High school 18 (1.6) 9 (50.0) 0.790 0.622 13 (72.2) 0.291 0.023
 Bachelors 505 (45.2) 301 (59.6) 1.165 0.214 463 (91.7) 1.232 0.325
 Postgraduate ® 587 (52.5) 328 (55.9)    528 (89.9)   
Parents’ income (LE)   OR = 0.69
p = 0.003
   OR = 2.54
p < 0.001
  
 ≤3000 594 (53.1) 368 (62) 1.441 0.003 517 (87) 0.393 0.00
 ˃3000 524 (46.9) 278 (53.1)    495 (94.5)   
Number of children   OR = 1.11
p = 0.327
   OR=2.51
p < 0.001
  
 1® 207 (18.5) 116 (56.0)    163 (78.7)   
 2–3 808 (72.3) 466 (57.7) 1.069 0.671 756 (93.6) 3.924 0.000
 4–5 89 (8) 55 (61.8) 1.269 0.358 79 (88.8) 2.133 0.044
 >5 14 (1.3) 9 (64.3) 1.412 0.548 14 (100.0) 436 × 106 0.999
Children with chronic disease   OR = 0.743
p = 0.239
   OR = 0.687
p = 0.430
  
 Yes 73 (6.5) 47 (64.4) 1.35 0.239 68 (93.2) 1.455 0.43
 No® 1045 (93.5) 599 (57.3)    944 (90.3)   
Other individuals living with family   OR = 0.815
p = 0.110
   OR = 1.88
p = 0.002
  
 Yes 385 (34.4) 235 (61.0) 1.22 0.11 334 (86.8) 0.531 0.002
 No ® 733 (65.6) 411 (56.1)    678 (92.5)   
Total 1118 646 (57.8)    1012 (90.5)   
  1. ®Reference category