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Table 2 Factors associated with patients’ financial accessibility to the essential drug list among rural and urban groups attending PHC units, Giza Governorate, Egypt, 2019

From: Perspectives of pharmaceutical stakeholders on determinants of medicines accessibility at the primary care level

Financial accessibility Residence P value*
Rural unit (N = 138) (%) Urban unit (N = 138) (%)
Willingness to pay for the medicine
 Yes 100 (72.4) 112 (81.1) 0.133
 No 38 (27.6) 26 (18.9)
Ability to pay for the medicine
 Yes 98 (71.1) 87 (63.1) 0.303
 No 40 (28.9) 51 (36.9)
Coping mechanisms
Borrowing to buy the medicine
  Yes 21 (15.3) 21 (15.3) 1
  No 117 (84.7) 117 (84.7)
Selling assets to buy the medicine
  Yes 7 (5.1) 4 (2.9) 0.721
  No 131 (94.9) 134 (97.1)
Out of pocket expenses (Egyptian pounds L.E.)
  Median (IQR) Median (IQR) P value**
Expenses on medicine in the current visit 15.75 (5‑73) 23.5 (2‑103) ˂ 0.001
Expenses on medicine/month 200 (20‑500) 100 (8‑550) 0.056
The estimated income per family member 222.2 (75‑1000) 333.3 (83.3‑2250) ˂ 0.001
  1. *P value was calculated using chi-square test
  2. **P value was calculated using the Mann-Whitney test
  3. P value is statistically significant < 0.05