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Table 3 Distribution of knowledge of cardiovascular disease (N = 212)

From: Hypertensive patients’ knowledge of cardiovascular disease in Calabar, Nigeria

S/n Variable/question Correct response Incorrect response^
N (%) N (%)
Dietary knowledge   
 1 Polyunsaturated fats are healthier for the heart than saturated fats. 50 (23.6) 162 (76.4)
 2 Trans-fats are healthier for the heart than most other kinds of fats. 42 (19.8) 170 (80.2)
 3 Most of the cholesterol in an egg is in the white part of the egg. 54 (25.5) 158 (74.5)
 4 Dietary fiber lowers blood cholesterol. 58 (27.4) 154 (72.6)
 6 Many vegetables are high in cholesterol. 130 (61.3) 82 (38.7)
Knowledge of basic meaning and epidemiology   
 7 Women are less likely to get heart disease after menopause than before. 90 (42.5) 122 (57.5)
 8 Heart disease is the leading cause of death in Nigeria. 156 (73.6) 56 (26.4)
 9 Most women are more likely to die from breast cancer than heart disease. 62 (29.2) 150 (70.8)
 10 Heart disease is better defined as a short-term illness than a chronic illness. 48 (22.6) 164 (77.4)
Medical knowledge   
 11 Most people can tell whether or not they have high blood pressure. 122 (57.5) 90 (42.5)
 12 The best kind of exercise involves rapid breathing for a sustained period of time. 130 (61.3) 82 (38.7)
 13 A healthy person’s pulse should return to normal within 15 min after exercise. 132 (62.3) 80 (37.7)
 14 Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) helps to clear clogged blood vessels. 84 (39.6) 128 (60.4)
 15 HDL refers to “good” cholesterol, and LDL refers to “bad” cholesterol. 106 (50.0) 106 (50.0)
 17 “High” blood pressure is defined as 110/80 (systolic/diastolic) or higher. 138 (65.1) 74 (34.9)
Knowledge of risk factors   
 18 Having had chicken pox increases the risk of getting heart disease. 120 (56.6) 92 (43.4)
 19 Eating a lot of red meat increases heart disease risk. 132 (62.3) 80 (37.7)
 20 The most important cause of heart attacks is stress. 84 (39.6) 128 (60.4)
 21 Walking and gardening are types of exercise that can lower heart disease risk 160 (75.5) 52 (24.5)
 22 Smokers are more likely to die of lung cancer than heart disease. 40 (18.9) 172 (81.1)
 23 Taking an aspirin each day is thought to decrease the risk of getting heart disease. 58 (27.4) 154 (72.6)
 24 Taller people are more at risk for getting heart disease. 104 (49.1) 108 (50.9)
 25 People who have diabetes are at higher risk of getting heart disease. 100 (47.2) 112 (52.8)
 26 Eating a high fiber diet increases the risk of getting heart disease. 72 (34.0) 140 (66.0)
Knowledge of symptoms   
 27 Turning pale or gray is a common symptom of having heart attack. 60 (28.3) 152 (71.7)
 28 Sudden trouble seeing in one eye is a common symptom of having a heart attack. 82 (38.7) 130 (61.3)
 29 Feeling weak, lightheaded, or faint is a common symptom of having a heart attack. 72 (34.0) 140 (66.0)
 30 Men and women experience many of the same symptoms of a heart attack. 58 (27.4) 154 (72.6)
  1. ^: including both incorrect and do not know responses