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Table 2 Sociodemographic and environmental factors associated with the risk of pneumonia among under-five children

From: Pneumonia among under-five children in Alexandria, Egypt: a case-control study

Sociodemographic and environmental factorsControl (n = 330)
N (%)
Cases (n = 330)
N (%)
PCrude OR95% CI
Place of residence
 Rural
 Urban
48 (14.5%)
282 (85.5%)
64 (19.4%)
266 (80.6%)
0.0981.414
1
0.938–2.130
Maternal age (years)
 ≤ 19
 20–29
 ≥ 30
4 (1.2%)
189 (57.3%)
137 (41.5%)
13 (3.9%)
182 (55.2%)
135 (40.9%)
0.041*
0.885
3.298
0.977
1
1.049–10.37
0.715–1.336
Maternal education (years of schooling)
 ≤ 8 years
 > 8 years
155 (47.0%)
175 (53.0%)
188 (57.0%)
142 (43.0%)
0.010*1.495
1
1.100–2.032
Maternal occupation
 Working
 Housewife
17 (5.2%)
313 (94.8%)
30 (9.1%)
300 (90.9%)
0.0521.841
1
0.995–3.408
Household crowding index
 > 2
 0–2
11 (3.3%)
319 (96.7%)
28 (8.5%)
302 (91.5%)
0.007*2.689
1
1.315–5.496
Home aeration (subjective)
 Poor
 Good
17 (5.2%)
313 (94.8%)
62 (18.8%)
268 (81.2%)
< 0.001*4.259
1
2.431–7.463
Household cigarette smoke exposure
 Yes
 No
166 (50.3%)
164 (49.7%)
198 (60.0%)
132 (40.0%)
0.012*1.482
1
1.089–2.017
Outdoor air pollution (Factory near residence)
 Yes
 No
26 (7.9%)
304 (92.1%)
69 (20.9%)
261 (79.1%)
< 0.001*3.091
1
1.912–4.997
  1. OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval
  2. *Statistically significant at P ≤ 0.05