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Table 1 Child-related factors associated with the risk of pneumonia among under-five children

From: Pneumonia among under-five children in Alexandria, Egypt: a case-control study

Child-related factorsControl (n = 330)
N (%)
Cases (n = 330)
N (%)
PCrude OR95% CI
Age
 1–12 months
 Older than 12 months
104 (31.5%)
226 (68.5%)
168 (50.9%)
162 (49.1%)
< 0.001*2.254
1
1.641–3.094
Sex
 Boys
 Girls
170 (51.5%)
160 (48.5%)
216 (65.5%)
114 (34.5%)
< 0.001*1.783
1
1.304–2.439
Weight for age
 Normal
 Under-weight
 Overweight
259 (78.5%)
52 (15.8%)
19 (5.7%)
267 (80.9%)
50 (15.2%)
13 (3.9%)
0.268
0.408
1.507
1.405
1
0.729–3.114
0.628–3.144
Birth order
 1
 2–3
 4 +
105 (31.8%)
196 (59.4%)
29 (8.8%)
76 (23.0%)
187 (56.7%)
67 (20.3%)
0.129
< 0.001*
1
1.318
3.192
0.932–1.883
1.886–5.403
Birthweight (grams)
 < 2500
 ≥ 2500
56 (17.0%)
274 (83.0%)
117 (35.5%)
213 (64.5%)
<0.001*2.688
1
1.865–3.873
Prematurity
 Yes
 No
25 (7.6%)
305 (92.4%)
56 (17.0%)
274 (83.0%)
< 0.001*2.493
1
1.514–4.106
Place of delivery
 Home
 Public hospital
 Private hospital/clinic
2 (0.6%)
183 (55.5%)
145 (43.9%)
10 (3%)
216 (65.5%)
104 (31.5%)
0.013*
0.002*
6.971
1.646
1
1.496–32.483
1.195–2.266
Mode of birth
 Caesarian
 Normal
213 (64.5%)
117 (35.5%)
210 (63.6%)
120 (36.4%)
0.8081.040
1
0.757–1.430
Breastfeeding practice
 No
 Non-exclusive breastfeeding
 Exclusive breastfeeding
51 (15.4%)
158 (47.9%)
121 (36.7%)
66 (20.0%)
188 (57.0%)
76 (23.0%)
0.002*
< 0.001*
2.060
1.408
1
1.295–3.279
1.152–1.722
Vaccination status
 Partially immunized
 Fully immunized
20 (6.1%)
310 (93.9%)
38 (11.5%)
292 (88.5%)
0.015*2.017
1
1.147–3.547
Concomitant illness
 Yes
 No
23 (7.0%)
307 (93.0%)
43 (13.0%)
287 (87.0%)
0.011*2.000
1
1.176–3.402
  1. OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval
  2. *Statistically significant at P ≤ 0.05