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Table 4 Prevalence and Concentration Index of ≥ 8 ANC contacts by household wealth quintile and maternal education, BDHS, 2017-18

From: Women’s enlightenment and early antenatal care initiation are determining factors for the use of eight or more antenatal visits in Benin: further analysis of the Demographic and Health Survey

VariableUrbanRuralTotal
Household wealth quintile (%)
 Poorest1.55.64.4
 Poorer6.82.13.0
 Middle12.54.16.2
 Richer5.14.44.7
 Richest22.720.022.2
 Overall12.94.98.0
 Concentration Index0.330.160.37
 SE0.070.100.06
P valueα< 0.001*0.087< 0.001*
 Urban-rural comparison   
 z-stat− 1.46  
 CI difference− 0.17  
P valueβ0.143  
Maternal education (%)
 No education9.13.75.5
 Primary16.58.911.9
 Secondary14.23.39.1
 Tertiary50.040.047.1
 Overall12.94.98.0
 Concentration Index0.180.150.21
 SE0.070.080.05
P valueα0.006*0.067< 0.001*
 Urban-rural comparison   
 z-stat− 0.34  
 CI difference− 0.03  
P valueβ0.734  
  1. P valueα and P valueβ were obtained using the Concentration Index for overall inequalities across socioeconomic groups and measuring rural vs. urban differences respectively
  2. SE standard error
  3. *Significant at p < 0.05