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Table 4 Safe injection practices among the nurses in Beni-Suef, Egypt, and Qassim, KSA, 2017

From: Safe injection awareness and practices among nursing staff in an Egyptian and a Saudi hospital

Part II—31 items Observations P value
Qassim Hospital
N (%)
Beni-Suef UH
N (%)
Total
There are posters/handouts for safety injection 181 (72.4) 205 (82.0) 386 (77.2) 0.007*
R-There are needles outside its sheath or not disposed 192 (76.8) 204 (81.6) 396 (79.2) 0.225
R-Is there any needle separated from its syringe inside sharps disposal box? 232 (92.8) 244 (97.6) 476 (95.2) 0.008*
Is there any sharps disposal box near patient care areas? 234 (93.6) 244 (97.6) 478 (95.6) 0.001*
R-Are needles recapped after the injection? 218 (87.2) 218 (87.2) 436 (87.2) 0.553
R-Reusing the syringe between the patients 242 (96.8) 243 (97.2) 485 (97.0) 0.500
R-Keeping the syringe to reuse for the same patient again 245 (98) 243 (97.2) 488 (97.6) 0.772
R-Are sharps disposal boxes overfilled by more 3/4 of their sizes? 227 (90.8) 227 (90.8) 454 (90.8) 0.500
R-Are there any sharps used and not disposed in sharps disposal boxes? 221 (88.4) 220 (88) 441 (88.2) 0.501
After injection, are syringes or needles disposed off immediately? 219 (87.6) 215 (86) 434(86.8) 0.692
Does the injector use a new closed syringe every time before injection? 238 (95.2) 240 (96) 478 (95.6) 0.828
Does the injector prepare safety injection procedure on clean table or tray before injection? 242 (96.8) 241 (96.4) 483 (96.6) 0.500
Does the injector wash his hand routinely before intravenous injection? 217 (86.8) 216 (86.4) 433 (86.6) 0.500
Does the injector wear new gloves before intravenous injection? 235 (94) 228 (91.2) 463 (92.6) 0.350
Is the injection skin site cleansed and disinfected before the injection? 234 (93.6) 238 (95.2) 472 (94.4) 0.560
Is there an available separate clean area for preparing medications? 223 (89.2) 208 (83.2) 431 (86.2) 0.034*
Are all items for safe injection prepared on a clean tray? 235 (94.0) 198 (79.2) 433 (86.6) 0.001*
Does the injector use sterile and closed syringe/IV cannula? 243 (97.2) 245 (98) 488 (97.6) 0.390
Using ready-made sterile water or manufacturer’s water for dilution of drugs 242 (96.8) 241 (96.4) 483 (96.6) 0.500
Make sure of expire and validity of drugs as exposure to heat or light 217 (86.8) 244 (97.6) 461 (92.2) 0.001*
Disinfection of the medication self-sealed rubber cap especially the multiple dose ones 202 (80.8) 208 (83.2) 410 (83.0) 0.280
Disinfectants are stored and refilled in a correct method 230 (92) 244 (97.6) 474 (94.8) 0.008*
There is complete separation between storage and patient care areas 242 (96.8) 242 (96.8) 484 (96.8) 0.660
Assure fixation of the IV cannula site 245 (98.0) 219 (87.6) 464 (92.8) 0.001*
Apply aseptic non touch technique 238 (95.2) 206 (82.4) 444 (88.8) 0.001*
Medical plaster is not contaminated (dealing with it so as not to contaminate) 218 (87.2) 225 (90) 443 (88.6) 0.199
A gauze barrier is used when breaking glass ampoules to prevent stick injury 202 (80.8) 205 (82.0) 407 (81.4) 0.409
Clean, disposable, single-use gloves are used for each patient 230 (92.0) 166 (66.4) 396 (79.2) 0.001*
Hand washing or alcohol hand rub is used before wearing gloves 195 (78.0) 230 (92) 425 (85.0) 0.001*
Preparing patient’s skin is done in an appropriate aseptic method 244 (97.6) 217 (86.8) 461 (92.2) 0.001*
No touch of the injected vein after preparation (asepsis) 242 (96.8) 235 (94) 477 (95.4) 0.100
  1. R items that are negatively worded and right response is NO
  2. *P value ≤ 0.05 is considered significant