Skip to main content

Table 1 Characteristics of the study CKD patients, Alexandria Main University Hospital, Egypt, 2016

From: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs among chronic kidney disease patients: an epidemiological study

Characteristics Total (n = 350)
No. (%)
NSAID users (n = 230)
No. (%)
NSAID non-users (n = 120)
No. (%)
p value
I. Personal characteristics
 Age (years) Mean ± SD 55 ± 13 54 ± 13 57 ± 13 0.06
 Gender
  Male 180 (51.4) 105 (45.7) 75 (62.5) 0.003*
  Female 170 (48.6) 125 (54.3) 45 (37.5)  
 Marital status
  Unmarried 17 (4.9) 12 (5.2) 5(4.2)  
  Married 261 (74.5) 169 (73.5) 92(76.7) 0.64
  Else 72(20.6) 49(21.3) 23(19.1)  
 Education
  Illiterate 223(63.7) 136 (59.2) 87 (72.5)  
  School education 116 (33.1) 86 (37.3) 30 (25.0) 0.13
  University 11 (3.2) 8 (3.5) 3 (2.5)  
 Occupation
  Not working 206 (58.8) 145 (63) 61 (50.8)  
  Clerk 29 (8.3) 23 (10) 6 (5) 0.003*
  Worker 42 (12) 27 (11.7) 15 (12.5)  
  Retired 73 (20.9) 35 (15.3) 38 (31.7)  
 Smoking status
  Never smoker 207 (59.2) 146 (63.5) 61 (50.8) 0.02*
  Current smoker 67 (19.1) 44 (19.1) 23(19.2)  
  Former smoker 76 (21.7) 40 (17.4) 36 (30)  
 Weight categories
  Normal 54 (15.4) 34 (14.8) 20 (16.7) 0.85
  Overweight 149 (42.6) 100 (43.5) 49 (40.8)  
  Obese 147 (42) 96 (41.7) 51 (42.5)  
II. Comorbid diseases
 Hypertension  
  Yes 200 (57.1) 146 (63.5) 54 (45) 0.001*
  No 150 (42.9) 84 (36.5) 66 (55)  
 Diabetes
  Yes 161 (46) 105 (45.7) 56 (46.7) 0.86
  No 189 (54) 125 (54.3) 64 (53.3)  
 Osteoarthritis
  Yes 98 (28) 82 (35.7) 16 (13.3) < 0.001*
  No 252 (72) 148 (64.3) 104 (86.7)  
 Autoimmune disease (RA and SLE)
  Yes 17 (4.9) 15 (6.5) 2 (1.7) 0.05
  No 333 (95.1) 219 (93.5) 118 (98.3)  
 CVDs
  Yes 64 (18.3) 42 (18.3) 22 (18.3) 0.99
  No 286 (81.7) 188 (81.7) 98 (81.7)  
 Hepatitis C virus
  Yes 58 (16.6) 23 (10) 35 (29.2) < 0.001*
  No 292 (83.4) 207 (90) 85 (70.8)  
 Cancer
  Yes 13 (3.7) 11 (4.8) 2 (1.7) 0.23
  No 337 (96.3) 219 (95.2) 118 (98.3)  
 Kidney stone
  Yes 9 (2.6) 7 (3) 2 (1.7) 0.72
  No 341 (97.4) 223 (97) 118 (98.3)  
III. Chronic kidney disease
 eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m2)
  Median (inter-quartile range) 27 (18–37) 26 (18–34) 31 (19–44.75) 0.003*
 CKD stage
  Stage 2 13 (3.7) 6 (2.6) 7 (5.8)  
  Stage 3a 44 (12.6) 21 (9.1) 23(19.2) 0.007*
  Stage 3b 97 (27.7) 62 (27) 35 (29.2)  
  Stage 4 196 (56.0) 141 (61.3) 55 (45.8)  
IV. History of intake of selected interacting drugs with NSAIDs
 Diuretics 34 (9.7) 19 (8.3) 8 (6.7) 0.20
 RAAS inhibitors 70 (20) 53 (23) 17 (14.2) 0.04*
 Both 22 (6.3) 14 (6.1) 8 (6.7) 0.83
  1. SD standard deviation, RA rheumatoid arthritis, SLE systemic lupus erythmatosus, CVDs cardiovascular diseases, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, CKD chronic kidney disease, RAAS renin-angiotensin-aldosterone inhibitors, NSAIDs non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
  2. *Significant at p < 0.05